Referencing the text, name 2 positive outcomes and 2 negative outcomes that come from visual electronic media use in childhood. Also referencing the text/research, if you were working with a parent who needed guidance on screen use for children, what information might you share?

Visual electronic media can be positive and negative regarding a child’s development. One of the benefits of a child watching television in terms of educational material, is that when coupled with parental interaction, can enhance learning. However, on the flip side, when children are left alone when watching educational programs it has been shown to cause delay, such as when learning language through video rather than from a person. (Broderick, p.209)

A negative consequence of television is that on it’s effect on attention for children. Broderick mentions that the more television that children watch before the age of 3 the harder it would be for them to regulate their attention by the time they were 7. (p. 208)

Though it seems television itself has negative connotations, the programming in which they watch is critical. TV shows like Dora the explorer ans Sesame street have shown that for children around 4yrs old benefit in terms of their reading readiness when it comes time to encounter those activities in school.(Broderick, p.209)

If I were to give advice to a parent needing guidance on when to use screen time effectively, my main focus would be around making sure that the parents moderate what the child watches and insures that interaction with the child takes place coupled with the screen time. Broderick mentions that the more violent the material on television, the worse it will affect the childs attention.(p.208-209)


BP 5

Examining the 4 parenting styles as highlighted in the chapter, name one character from today’s pop culture/society that depicts a specific parenting style and describe/cite 4 identifying characteristics as referenced in the text to support your selection.

The parenting style that I choose is that of my father’s, which I believe to be authoritative. My father shows traits of having an authoritative parenting style because when I was younger, he allowed me to make my own mistakes rather than controlling my actions, strengthening my autonomy. (Broderick p.181) Things like going to parties when I was younger was not an issue as long as I behaved myself. Through socializing, my father engraved in me the norms for behaving in such situations, leaving the decision making to myself while at the same time having the knowledge to act appropriately. (Broderick p.181)

Another aspect of the authoritative parenting style my father possessed is the open communication. (Broderick p. 181) When discussing things that I did wrong during my childhood, my father created a dialogue, explaining why what I did was wrong rather than just administering punishment.

The last trait my father has according to the authoritarian parenting style is his strong behavioral control. (Broderick p.181) When punishments were administered, The were punishments like groundings, taking away privileges(like car), or limiting my access to “fun” things.(Games and such) This is reflective of the authoritative parenting style because my father did not use and psychological control such and becoming neglectful or withholding love.


Reflecting on the New York Longitudinal Study (1977) of behavioral traits of infants, how might the effectiveness of caregiving behaviors be different for children with each temperament (name and address 3 traits specifically)? How could that affect level of attachment between caregiver/parents and child?

The three behavioral traits of infants include difficult babies, easy babies, and slow-to-warm-up babies. Depending on the trait the child has will influence the attachment between the child and their caregiver.

Difficult babies are those with low temperament, become fearful more easily, and are irritable. Parents with difficult babies have a harder time building attachment, however, if parents are given support and increase their parenting skills, attachment can be assisted.

Easy babies are on the other side of the spectrum, they are more calm, display more positive affect, and are not as irritable as difficult babies. Attachment concerning these babies are much easier to establish and require less effort in regards to parents.

Slow-to-warm-up babies are in the middle of the aforementioned extremes. They do not present themselves as calmly as the easy babies and are more pron to irritable behavior. however, as long as the caregiver practices satisfactory care giving skills, the child traditionally grows out of the irritable behavior and well adjusted attachment can be made.

With each trait, it all depends on the goodness of fit in regards to the parents. Regardless of what trait the baby has, when proper care giving is applied, attachment can be obtained. However, if the proper care giving is not applied, then the temperament traits can then cause behavioral issues in adolescents.


Play activity plays a large role in the development on young children. An example given by the text regards the process of learning number understanding. The example involved children spacial understanding of where the numbers 1-10 would fall on a line. Meaning that the child would “eyeball” where numbers belong on a line, example being 1 at the beginning of the line, 5 at the middle, and 10 belonging at the end. Those children who played board games with their families like chutes and ladders, a game that requires movement on tiles that are in sequential order from 1-10 or further, had a better understanding of numbers and performed better on the activity in class than those students who did not play such activities at home.

In chapter 3, there is also a concept call “pretend play” or more commonly known as make believe, where children take on roles with others pretending to be things or people they are not. This concept increases the child’s language development through social interaction and increases their theory of mind skills. Skills such as symbolic recognition where the child learns to see objects represent other things, such as riding a broom symbolizes a horse, knowing full well that the broom is not actually a horse.

Another example given in the text is that of exploratory play. A bit similar to pretend play, however doesn’t necessarily need to be social. This concept explains that when children are left on their own with a variety of toys or objects, children naturally begin to explore them. This leads to the child sorting, organizing, learning their properties. This results in the child learning about spacial relations, numbers, and how to categorize objects, among other skills. The example in the text describes an activity performed by Mix, Moore, and Holcomb where children matched items occording to their properties, such as three turtles and three flowers, the quantity being the relation. Those that failed the test were given materials to take home and practice the skill for 6 weeks which included a container with slots as well as items that corresponded to the slots. After the 6 weeks of playing, the children had improved numerical equivalence.